投资有风险 入市需谨慎
APP
下载火星财经客户端

扫描下载APP

微信公众号
火星财经二维码 火星财经

EOS的产品副总裁:v0.3.0版EOS.IO宪法草案合集

火星财经 ·

05月07日

热度: 164962

本文翻译自EOS的产品副总裁Thomas先生发表在EOS GO上的EOS宪法草案系列文章。本期是来自EOS宪法草案系列条款九——十五的合集。

条款9: 设立仲裁法庭

Purpose

Establishes the third leg of governance, the Judicial. Restricts Arbitrators to operate only within the context of an Arbitration Forum. (For more on what an Arbitration Forum is, read the Discussion.)

目的

建立治理的第三步,即司法。限制仲裁员只能在仲裁法庭的范围内行使(仲裁)。 (关于仲裁法庭的更多内容,请阅读讨论部分。)

Text of Article

No Arbitrator shall serve except within an Arbitration Forum.

条款正文

任何仲裁员均不得在仲裁法庭之外行使仲裁。

Discussion

Several points.

Arbitrators are not free-range lone actors. They operate under very tight constraints:

They only rule on cases brought to them by a party

They operate within the rules of the Arbitration Forum that certified them

Their work is subject to oversight by their Forum

They publish their Findings and Orders for public view (except some aspects of cases may be kept confidential when a party to the case might be harmed by publication)

Their decisions must be reflective of the Constitution, the specific Contracts in play in the case, and the emerging social norms of the community

讨论

有以下几点。

仲裁员不是自由放任的角色。 仲裁员们在非常严格的限制下行使仲裁:

   1.他们只裁决由某一方当事人提请的纠纷案件   

   2.他们在认证了他们仲裁员资格的仲裁法庭的规则范围内行使仲裁    

   3.他们的工作受到他们所属的仲裁法庭的监督   

   4.公开发表他们的调查结果和仲裁命令(当案件的一方可能因公布而受到伤害时,案件的某些方面可能会被保密)    

   5.他们的裁决必须要反映宪法,案件中具体的合约,以及社区新兴的社会规范。

An Arbitration Forum is a collection of:

A specific set of Rules of Dispute Resolution (RDR) for managing arbitration cases and deciding those casesA particular set of people who have organized the forum and who manage cases and assign arbitratorsA system of arbitration training and certificationA set of individual Arbitrators who have been trained and certifiedHow is a particular Arbitration Forum empowered to take a case?

仲裁法庭是以下事项的一个集合:

一套具体的用于管理仲裁案件和裁决这些案件的纠纷处理规则(RDR)

组织仲裁法庭、管理案件并指派仲裁员的一组特定人员

一套仲裁的培训和认证系统

一组经过培训和认证的个体仲裁员

一个特定的仲裁法庭如何授权接受案件?

The two disputants have agreed to use that particular forum, either before or after their dispute arises (it's better to agree in advance)The two disputants have signed a contract that stipulates the use of that particular forumThe two disputants are part of a community or enclave, and as members they agreed to use a particular forumAs a special case, the EOSIO Constitution should refer to a specific forum so that, if none of the prior conditions are met, there is still a forum available by defaultI'm aware that the plural of the Latin word 'forum' is 'fora' -- I chose to say 'forums' because that's become accepted English usage.

References

None yet

纠纷双方同意在纠纷发生之前或之后使用该特定仲裁法庭(最好事先同意)

纠纷双方签署了一份规定使用该特定仲裁法庭的合约

纠纷双方是社区或民族聚集地的一员,作为成员他们同意使用某个特定仲裁法庭

作为特例,EOSIO宪法应该指定一个特定的仲裁法庭,以便如果任何先前的条件都没有满足,仍然有一个默认的仲裁法庭可用

我知道拉丁词'forum'的复数是'fora' -- 而我选择说'forums',因为这已是英语的使用习惯。

参考

还没有

条款10 :仲裁员标准 

Purpose

Sets minimum standards for an Arbitrator and an Arbitration Forum.

目的

为仲裁员和仲裁法庭设定最低标准。

Text of Article

No Member shall serve as an Arbitrator who has not

●Agreed in advance to the Arbitrator Agreement provided by the Members,

●Been nominated by at least two other Members, and

●Completed the course of study of, been certified by, and be in good standing with their Forum.

条款正文

任何成员均不得以仲裁员自居,如果他们尚未:

●事先同意成员提供的仲裁协议,

●至少由另外两位成员提名,并且

●完成了仲裁法庭的学习过程,获得了认证,并具有良好的信誉。

Discussion

None - see Article IX  for most of the discussion points on Arbitration in the Constitution

References

none yet

讨论

无 - 有关“宪法”仲裁的大部分讨论要点见条款9

译者附:

1.此条款中的Members指的应该是宪法草案条款的前几条中提到的”共同行动成员“。

2.仲裁协议指的应该是宪法草案条款3。

条款11 :开发人员和智能合约许可证 

Purpose

Defines when a Member is a Developer. Establishes obligation of a Developer to provide a License and one or more Ricardian Contracts, and to name an Arbitration Forum for their software.

目的

定义一个成员何时是一个开发人员。规定开发者有义务提供许可证和一份或多份李嘉图合约,并为其软件指定一个仲裁法庭。

Text of Article

Each Member who makes available a smart contract on this blockchain shall be a Developer. Each Developer shall offer their smart contracts via a license, and each smart contract shall be documented with a Ricardian Contract stating the intent of all parties and naming the Arbitration Forum that will resolve disputes arising from that contract.

条款正文

每个在此区块链上提供智能合约的成员均为开发人员。每个开发人员都应通过许可证来提供他们的智能合约,每份智能合约应记录在一份说明各方意图的李嘉图合约中,并指定仲裁法庭来处理合约中产生的纠纷。

Discussion

It's not clear at the Constitutional level what happens, or what should happen, in cases where code is published but no License is provided, or when no Ricardian Contract is provided. The EOSIO Software doesn't require either at the code level. Arbitrators will be required to figure out how to handle such cases.

A Member who is considering running someone's software should be wary of software offered without a clear License and without any Ricardian Contract(s).

It's certainly possible for the License terms to be referenced by, or even contained entirely within, the Ricardian Contract(s). That might be a good practice.

References

None yet.

讨论

在宪法层面上并不清楚,在发布代码但没有提供许可证或没有提供李嘉图合约的情况下,会发生什么或者应该会发生什么。 在代码层面上,EOSIO软件也不需要弄清楚(会发生什么或者应该会发生什么)。仲裁员将需要弄清楚如何处理这种情况。

如果某软件没有明确的许可证且没有任何李嘉图合约的话,那么考虑运行它的成员应该要警惕了。

许可条款当然有可能被李嘉图合约引用,甚至完全包含在其内。这可能是一个很好的做法。

参考

还没有。

条款12:多语言合约

Purpose

To give room for a contract to be provided in multiple languages while eliminating ambiguity as to which is the official version.

目的

为了给合约提供多语言的空间,同时消除哪些版本才是官方版本的歧义。

Text of Article

Multi-lingual contracts must specify the prevailing language in case of dispute.

条款正文

如有纠纷,多语种合约必须指明使用哪国语言作为主导语言。

Discussion

As discussed elsewhere, the official language of this Constitution is English. It may be translated into other languages, but the version that prevails in disputes is English.

Similarly, a given contract that is provided in multiple languages needs to include a statement regarding which version prevails in a dispute.

If the author doesn't specify a prevailing language, it's going to be up to the Arbitrator of the dispute to pick a version (unless the disputants agree on one). There is no way in this Discussion section to anticipate or control how that decision will unfold. For that reason it is probably a best practice for each developer to either only offer one language, or to state explicitly which language is the official and prevailing one.

References

None yet.

讨论

正如别处所讨论的,这部宪法的官方语言是英语。它可能被翻译成其他语言,但纠纷中采用的主导语言大都是英语。

同样,以多种语言提供的特定合约需要包括一个声明,指明纠纷中将采用哪国语言作为主导语言。

如果作者没有指明主导语言,则将由处理纠纷的仲裁员来选择(除非纠纷双方达成一致)。本讨论部分没有办法预测或控制该裁决将如何展开。因此,对于每个开发者来说,最好的做法可能是只提供一种语言,或者明确指出哪种语言是官方的和主导的。

译者附:

1.Multilingual Contracts翻译为多语言合约,Multi-lingual Contracts翻译为多语种合约。

2.the prevailing language翻译为主导语言,在本条的语境下,是以什么什么为准的含义。

3.感谢@币律 对本条款做出的帮助。

条款13:开发者对非成员的访问负责

Purpose

To ensure that someone is responsible for all on-chain interactions.

目的

确保有人对所有的链上的交互负责。

Text of Article

As Developers are able to offer services and provide interaction with the blockchain to non Members via their applications, the Developer assumes all responsibility for guaranteeing that non-Member interaction conforms to this Constitution.

条款正文

由于开发者能够通过其应用程序,向非成员提供服务并提供区块链互动,因此开发者承担全责来保证非成员的互动是符合本宪法的。

Discussion

It is easy to imagine ways a developer of a decentralized application might make on-chain activity available to a person who is not a Member (i.e. who owns no tokens and who has not signed the Constitution). For example they could provide anonymous transactions, or maintain a user list off-chain, allowing their users to perform actions on-chain with the developer's own tokens staked for CPU, Bandwidth, and RAM, and operating under the developer's permission set.

Such external users, being non-members and potentially anonymous, will be hard to hold responsible for any on-chain actions that might give rise to liability.

Therefore the Developer must bear that responsibility.

References

None yet.

讨论

很容易想象,分散式应用程序的开发者,很有可能,会让不是成员的人(即没有token并且没有签署宪法的人员)可以进行链上活动。 例如,他们(开发者)可以提供匿名交易,或者链下维护一个用户列表,允许用户在链上执行操作,通过使用开发者为了CPU、带宽、内存而质押的开发者自己的token,并且在开发者权限设置下操作。

对于任何可能引起法律责任的链上操作,这些外部用户(非成员并且可能是匿名的)将很难负责。

因此开发者必须承担这一责任。

译者附:

CPU、token不翻译

条款14:无积极权利

Purpose

Prevents the creation of positive Constitutional rights.

目的

防止创建宪法的积极权利。

Text of Article

This Constitution creates no positive rights for or between any Members.

条款正文

本宪法不为任何成员创建积极权利,也不会在任何成员之间创建积极权利。

Discussion

As described in the  Design Principles of this Draft Constitution, it's important for several reasons that the Constitution not create, directly or by implication, any positive rights.

Negative rights provide the greatest freedom of action for all parties.

Negative rights can (almost) always be respected via inaction, and violations are (usually) easy to spot.

Negative rights do not create obligations for action on others and don't create a slippery slope of entitlement or a path toward transforming this chain's default token into a de facto security.

The intention of this article is to make it clear that none of the other articles, and nothing in the subordinate governing documents (BP Agreement, Arbitrator Agreement, etc.) can or should be interpreted as conferring a positive right on any Member.

References

None yet

讨论

正如《宪法草案的设计原则》中所述,宪法不会直接或间接地创建任何积极权利,有以下几个重要原因:

消极权利为各方提供了最大的行动自由。

通过不采取行动,消极权利可以(几乎)始终被尊重,而且违规行为(通常)很容易被发现。

消极权利不会给他人套上行动的义务,也不会创造权利的滑坡谬误,或将此链的默认token转变为事实上的证券。

本条款旨在明确指出,其他条款以及下属治理文件(区块生产者协议,仲裁协议等等)中没有任何条款可以或应该被解释为赋予任何成员一个积极权利。

译者附:

1.Slippery slope指的是滑坡谬误,是一种逻辑谬论,即不合理地使用连串的因果关系,将“可能性”转化为“必然性”,以达到某种意欲之结论。

2.在宪法学领域,根据对自由类型的划分,有消极权利和积极权利之分。

3.token不翻译。

4.此条款的翻译得到了【小康崽儿】的帮助协力,特此感谢。


文章原标题:Thomas Cox: v0.3.0版EOS.IO宪法草案合集  原作者:成天乐翻译

关键字: EOS IMEOS

推广
相关新闻

涨幅榜

你可能感兴趣的内容
下一篇

数字资产托管公链Themis即将登陆Hadax交易平台